Adopted by the Peace and Security Council (PSC) of the African Union (AU) at its 1175th meeting held, at the Ministerial level, on 23 September 2023, on financing AU Peace Support Operations (PSOs);

The Peace and Security Council,

Recalling all relevant Assembly Decisions, particularly Decision [Assembly/AU/Dec.561(XXIV)] of January 2015 and Decision [Assembly/AU/Dec.578(XXV)] of June 2015 which reiterated Member States commitment on financing peace and security activities; as well as Assembly Decisions [Assembly/AU/Dec.842(XXXVI)] adopted at the 36th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the Union held in Addis Ababa, from 18 to 19 February 2023 which adopted the ‘Consensus Paper on Predictable, Adequate and Sustainable Financing for African Union Peace and Security Activities’; also recalling its decisions on financing AU PSOs, in particular Communiqué [PSC/MIN/COMM.1153 (2023)] adopted at its 1153rd meeting held on 12 May 2023 at the ministerial level;

Further recalling AU Assembly Decision Assembly/Dec.145 (VIII) adopted at its 8th Ordinary Session in 2007 calling upon ‘the United Nations to examine, within the context of Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, the possibility of funding, through assessed contributions, peace-keeping operations undertaken by African Union or under its authority and with the consent of the United Nations;

Recognizing that the primary mandate on peace and security rest with the UN security Council and the UN support for AU Peace Support Operations with UN Chapter VII mandate is critical, noting the circumstances of such deployments, which includes putting the lives and limbs of deployed personnel to enforce peace, in the service of the global public good for the maintenance of international peace and security, requires the use of UN assessed contributions based on established parameters of UN standards and building on existing practices including the logistical support package for the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), now AU Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS);

Reaffirming AU’s commitment for the continuous enhancement and full implementation of the AU human rights, international human rights law and conduct and discipline compliance framework and to expand the requisite structures and processes at the AU Commission for ensuring harmonisation and requisite reporting including compliance with UN minimum standards and financial rules;

Deeply concerned by the persistent challenges facing AU Peace Support Operations, especially limited financial and logistical capabilities, hampering the Union’s efforts in addressing peace and security challenges on the Continent;   

Noting the statement by H.E Mbella Mbella, Minister of External Relations of the Republic of Cameroon and Chairperson of the PSC for the month of September 2023; the remarks by H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the AU Commission; the presentation by H.E. Dr. Donald Kaberuka, AU High Representative on Financing and the Peace Fund; as well as the statements by the Representatives of the United Nations; and

Acting under Article 7 of its Protocol, the Peace and Security Council: 

1. Reaffirms the commitment of the AU to continue mobilizing predictable, adequate and sustainable financing for all AU mandated, authorized and endorsed peace support operations (PSOs) on the Continent; while taking note of, with concern, the persistent financial challenges faced by AU-led PSOs which are preventing them from effectively implementing their respective mandates; 

2. Commends the AU Member States for their commitment towards the revitalization of the AU Peace Fund and for their contributions, as well as approving the increased contributions of the AU to AU-Led PSOs, including through the use of the AU Peace Fund, as part of efforts to enhance Africa’s ownership of its peace and security priorities; and also commends the Commission for continuing to ensure financial accountability and fiduciary reporting; 

3. Welcomes the initiatives of the Regional Economic Communities and Regional Mechanisms (RECs/RMs), for deploying troops in their respective regions to protect civilians, fight against terrorism and armed groups; calls on the international community to extend financial and technical support to the efforts of the RECs/RMs;

4. Underscores the need for ensuring that all deployments for the maintenance of peace and security including by sub-regional mechanisms are undertaken within the framework of the standards and principles outlined in the PSC Protocol and the African Standby Force framework for ensuring compliance;

5. Welcomes the considerable progress achieved so far by the Commission in the enhancement of the AU human rights, international human rights law and conduct and discipline compliance framework, including its collaboration with the UN and the European Union (EU) in the implementation of a Tripartite Project on the same, and emphasizes the need for the AU Commission to strengthen the requisite structures for ensuring the effective implementation of the framework as an iterative process; 

6. Notes with serious concern the premature drawdown and closure of AU PSOs due to financial challenges, as well as the closure of several UN peacekeeping missions on the Continent, which inevitably leaves security gaps, further exposing the Continent to serious security challenges with the risk of reversing the gains that have been made so far; 

7. Reiterates the imperative to enable an effective, structured and systematic AU-UN partnership and cooperation that enhances effective regional responses to global security threats, in line with the spirit of Chapter VIII of the UN Charter;

8. Requests the Commission to continue its collaboration with the UN to ensure a standardized mechanism through which the AU, UN and sub regional configurations can collaboratively assess and undertake collective response to crises, including the finalization of the AU-UN Joint Planning Guidelines for AU PSOs to set out a framework for AU-UN joint integrated planning, decision-making and coordination, as part of the modalities for UN support to AU-Led PSOs; 

9. Reiterates the need for sustainable solutions to address the complex challenges in the Great Lakes region and the Sahel, and consolidate the gains made in Somalia, Mozambique and in the Lake Chad Basin Region. Within this context, further reiterates the urgent need for joint AU/UN approaches to ensure stability and sustain peace in AU Member States where UN peace operations will be closed and liquidated; 

10. Reaffirms the proposed three models of funding as articulated in the Consensus Paper on Predictable, Adequate and Sustainable Financing for AU Peace and Security Activities adopted by the  36th Assembly of the Union in February 2023; namely, the use of UN Assessed Contribution through the Hybrid Mission Model; the use of UN Assessed Contributions through an Enhanced UN Support Office Model; and the use of UN Assessed Contribution in Support of Sub-Regional Peace Support Operations; 

11. Takes note of the Report of the UN Secretary General on financing AU-Led PSOs of May 2023 regarding potential financing options that ensures the most predictable and sustainable financing and resource support to AU-Led PSOs; in this context, underscores the need to build on existing practices, including but not limited to the UN Support Office model that enabled the facilitation of logistical support to AMISOM and now ATMIS, for enhanced collaboration and coordination between the UN, AU and the RECs/RMs, in planning, deployment and management, including financing of PSOs authorized by the UNSC from UN assessed contributions on a case by case basis;

12. Underscores the need for the adoption of a resolution on financing AU PSOs by the UN Security Council for the use of UN Assessed contributions with the view to ensuring predictable and sustainable financing of PSOs; in this context, mandates the AU Commission to provide technical support to the PSC and the A3 to develop a draft resolution to be submitted to the UN Security Council for consideration and adoption; furthermore, requests the A3, with the support of the AU Commission, to commence negotiations towards generating consensus on the said resolution for consideration and adoption by the UNSC before the end of December 2023;

13. Expresses appreciation to the UN, EU and other strategic partners for their continued support to AU PSOs and calls for continued and enhanced support to AU peace and security priorities and initiatives;

14. Requests the UN Security Council to support the AU’s efforts to ensure predictable and sustainable funding for AU PSOs in order to address the critical funding gap for AU PSOs; 

15. Takes note of the request by the Federal Government of Somalia to the current President of the UN Security Council, copied to the AU Commission, requesting for a technical pause of three months for the phase 2 drawdown of ATMIS troops due on 30 September 2023 and decides to convene a session to specifically consider the matter in due course;

16. Renews its recommendation to the AU Assembly of the Heads of State and Government, and the Chairperson of the Commission, to consider nominating an AU Champion, who will work with the Commission for the mobilization of resources for AU peace and security activities on the Continent;

17. Welcomes the initiative by the Government of Cameroon for creating a Security and Defense Professional School, specialized in peacekeeping; 

18. Re-emphasizes the importance of ensuring that the funding of PSOs considers the psychosocial support to women and children through the Children Affected by Armed Conflict Platform, AU-empowered mediation and initiatives that support women inclusivity such as the African First lady Peace Mission; and humanitarian situations in Africa; and

19. Decides to remain actively seized on this critical issue.

Posted by Limi Mohammed
Last updated by Abraham Kebede

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