THIRD PROGRESS REPORT OF THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE COMMISSION ON THE AFRICAN UNION’S EFFORTS ON POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
1. This report is submitted pursuant to relevant decisions and directives from the Assembly of the Union and the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council (PSC) on enhancing the AU’s Efforts in Implementing Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD). It provides an update on the steps taken by the Commission to implement the PCRD Policy and the challenges encountered since the last report on PCRD submitted to Council on 26 April 2016. It concludes with observations and recommendations on the way forward.
II. FOLLOW-UP OF THE RELEVANT DECISIONS OF THE AFRICAN UNION POLICY ORGANS
2. The AU policy organs have remained actively seized with the implementation of PCRD activities. In Decision Assembly/AU/6(XXVIII) adopted by the 28th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the Union on held from 30 to 31 January 2017, on the report of the Peace and Security Council on its activities and the State of Peace and Security in Africa, the Assembly stressed the need to closely monitor those countries emerging from conflicts and to provide sustained support to them, with a view to accomplishing the tasks of Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development, as a measure to prevent relapses.
3. In its decision adopted at the 593rd meeting held on 26 April 2016, the PSC took note of the Second Progress Report of the Chairperson of the Commission on the AU’s Efforts on Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD) in Africa, submitted to Council pursuant to Assembly Decision [Assembly/AU/Dec.408 (XVIII)], adopted at its 18th Ordinary Session held in Addis Ababa, on 30 and 31 January 2012, which stressed the need for renewed efforts towards PCRD in order to consolidate peace wherever it has been achieved on the continent. Council also reiterated its request to the Commission to undertake a comprehensive review of the AU PCRD architecture and submit a report on steps taken by the Commission in implementing Council’s decisions on PCRD.
4. Further, at its 528th meeting on PCRD held on 30 July 2015, the PSC recalled Articles 3(c), 6(e) and 14(1), of the Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union which provide the basis for it to play an active role in PCRD activities in post-conflict situations. Council also recalled the AU PCRD Policy Framework adopted by the Executive Council in June 2006, in Banjul, The Gambia, as a strategic and operational framework for coordination of activities amongst the diverse actors within the AU PCRD architecture.
III. THE AFRICAN SOLIDARITY INITIATIVE
5. At its 19th Ordinary Session of Heads of State and Government held in Addis Ababa, in July 2012, the African Solidarity Initiative (ASI) was launched as an AU-led process for mobilising support from within the continent for countries emerging from conflict, in line with the AU PCRD Policy adopted in 2006. A Decision - Assembly/AU/Dec.425 (XIX) - on the African Solidarity Initiative, was adopted, requesting the Commission, in close collaboration with the countries concerned and all other Member States, Regional Economic Communities, and other relevant African institutions, to roll-out a full implementation plan, and to mobilise in-kind and financial contributions, to support post-conflict reconstruction activities and efforts in the African countries concerned. As such, the Commission undertook efforts to ensure that the objectives of the Initiative which consists of complementing ongoing efforts towards post-conflict reconstruction and development by initiating a new paradigm of “Africa helping Africa” through the mobilisation of in-kind contribution and financial resources from within the continent, are attained.
6. The Commission has continued to engage Member States and Regional Economic Communities/Regional Mechanisms (RECs/RMs) to support each other in the spirit of African solidarity. On 25 August 2016, the meeting of the International Contact Group on the Central African Republic (ICG-CAR) was held, co-chaired by the AU and the Republic of Congo. The ICG-CAR agreed to transform itself into an International Support Group for the CAR, led by the AU, ECCAS and the UN. In the same manner, the Commission organised a Solidarity Conference on 1 February 2017 to raise both financial and in-kind support for the recovery and reconstruction of the CAR. Despite consultations with Member States, the Solidarity Conference did not yield the expected outcomes with only US $20,000 pledged by the Government of the Republic of Liberia. Notwithstanding the modest outcome, the Commission in collaboration with the Government of the CAR will continue to engage with Member States, particularly by sensitising them further about the implementation of the CAR’s Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan (2017- 2021).
IV. MAINSTREAMING GENDER INTO THE CONTINENTAL PEACE AND SECURITY ARCHITECTURE
7. The Gender, Peace and Security Programme (GPSP) aims at mainstreaming gender in all programmes of peace and security including PCRD through collaboration with RECs/RMs and regional CSO platforms, to develop and implement continental and regional strategies for the participation of women in Peace and Security. In this vein, the Commission through its Liaison Office in Burundi partnered with the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) Secretariat to convene the ICGLR Forum for the women of the Great Lakes Region. The main objective of the meeting was to prepare documents to be submitted to the Regional Inter-ministerial Committee for consideration by the foreign affairs ministers of the ICGLR and the possible adoption of best practices and strategies for resource mobilisation and information sharing with national fora.
8. In March 2016, the Commission through its Liaison Office in Madagascar and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) organised workshops in commemoration of Women’s Day and the fight against violence against women. Recommendations from these workshop included the promotion of the rights of women and women’s equality; fight for the eradication of negative social, religious and cultural practices against women and girls; and encourage the participation of women and facilitate access to credits and savings. This activity was undertaken in close collaboration with the Commission and the Office of the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary General for the Great Lakes Region. It brought together judicial officers including prosecutors from the 11 Member States of the Great Lakes Region as well as from countries in conflict or emerging from conflict (Côte d’Ivoire, Chad, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Sierra Leone and Somalia) with a view to identifying best practices and major challenges to addressing sexual violence in crisis settings, including obstacles for women’s access to justice, especially in post-conflict settings.
V. COORDINATION AND COHERENCE OF POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS AND PARTNERSHIPS WITH REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMUNITIES AND MECHANISMS
9. With a view of reviewing PCRD Policy implementation, the Commission convened a workshop to mark the tenth anniversary of the AU PCRD Policy. The workshop which was attended by a broad range of African and non-African actors including the Chair of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, provided an opportunity for the Commission to reflect on the progress, opportunities and challenges since the policy was adopted in 2006. Amongst other things, the workshop noted that in order to further develop and enhance the implementation of the PCRD Policy, there is a need to clarify on the roles and responsibilities of the Commission and partners including International Organisations, multilateral donors, Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), private sector, media and the academia in peacebuilding efforts. The outcomes of the workshop are now being used to elaborate an action plan for the PCRD Policy for 2017-2020, which would be closely aligned with Africa’s strategic vision of Silencing the Guns by 2020 and Agenda 2063.
10. Critical to encouraging joint planning and resource mobilisation and operationalising the AU PCRD Policy, various Divisions within the Commissions of Peace and Security and Political Affairs developed supporting policies which make it possible to ensure that relevant context-specific interventions are developed and implemented within a sufficiently secure environment that guarantees the security. Among the frameworks developed are the Quick Impact and Peace Strengthening Policy and Guidelines, the AU Policy Framework on Security Sector Reform and the Transitional Justice Framework which is being finalised. Other relevant policies, strategies and standard operating procedures will be developed in 2017.
11. During the reporting period, as key actors in the Commission’s Inter-departmental Task Force on PCRD, the RECs/RMs continued to play a key role in PCRD implementation. In order to assist them in fast-tracking PCRD at regional levels, the establishment of appropriate PCRD implementation mechanisms at RECs/RMs level is being prioritised. The adaptation of the AU PCRD Policy and the development of guidelines for their implementation at regional level will also be undertaken in 2017.
12. The Commission’s engagement with the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) grew substantially during the reporting period. The Project “Support to the AUC for the Implementation of the African Peace and Security Architecture; Funding Window for Cross-Border Reconstruction and Development Measures- Trading for Peace” has assisted greatly in sensitising cross-border women traders, through the provision of trainings on entrepreneurial skills development and conflict management. Following the transfer of skills, the women traders formed Cross-Border Traders Associations (CBTAs) that assist in enhancing trade activities and raise their incomes, in a bid to alleviate household poverty. The project has, through the CBTAs and the Trade Information Desk Managers (TIDM), encouraged women traders to cultivate a saving culture and opening of bank accounts. So far, over 600 traders opened bank accounts in the initial phase. The CBTAs also negotiate on behalf of traders by simplifying migration rules and procedures such as a waiver of visa fees where it is applicable, and the provision of Regional Traders identity cards for ease of identification. The project with the support of COMESA has also lobbied Member States to remove barriers for cross-border trade by harmonising trade and migration policies. An outcome of the process saw Rwanda and the DRC on 20 October 2016 signing a cooperation agreement on the elimination of cross-border trade non-tariff barriers. This removed import duty on products valued at below US $2,000. The project will continue to engage other Member States to adopt similar actions on cross-border trade.
13. In its continued efforts of building partnerships, the Commission is currently engaging with CSOs on the AU PCRD Policy, to establish a CSO-PCRD platform. Avoiding a one-size-fits-all approach and appreciating the fact that each region or post-conflict situation comes with its own peculiarities, would guide the formulation and nuancing of regional and international intervention strategies. In this vein, special efforts would be given to understanding why some countries are more susceptible to relapse than others.
VI. NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT BY AFRICAN UNION LIAISON OFFICES
14. The Commission, through its Liaison Offices continued to support countries emerging from conflicts or those in transition through the implementation of Quick Impact Projects (QIPs) and Peace Strengthening Projects (PSPs), aimed at providing tangible peace dividends to the population, as well as contributing towards effective stabilisation efforts to avoid the risk of relapse.
15. In this context, a grant from the United Kingdom on Strengthening AU Liaison Offices’ Role in Early Recovery, Stabilisation and Post-Conflict Reconstruction totalling US $995, 183.10 was disbursed to the AULOs in October 2016, following the conclusion of bilateral negotiations between the Commission and the Embassy of the United Kingdom in Addis Ababa in August 2016. The objective of the projects implemented by the five AULOs – the CAR, Liberia, Madagascar, Guinea Bissau and South Sudan, and African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), is to contribute to efforts of the AU in generating tangible peace dividend by supporting a broad range of initiatives and processes including building the capacity of Governments at the national and community levels to consolidate peacebuilding at all levels. During the reporting period, the Commission provided tangible support in the following countries:
(i) Central African Republic - The Commission has remained firmly committed to the management of the crisis in the CAR, particularly since the last coup d'état in March 2013. After the transfer of responsibility from the AU International Mission in the Central African Republic (MISCA), the Commission established the AU Mission in Central Africa (MISAC) with a mandate, inter alia, to support the political transition, the organisation of elections, the implementation of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR) programmes, justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development, and the implementation of the Cooperation Initiative for the Elimination of the Lord's Resistance Army (ICR-LRA). In the last quarter of 2016, assistance was provided to the CAR on DDR and SSR capacity building through a workshop held in August 2016. In partnership with the Economic Community of Central Africa (ECCAS), the ICGLR, Angola, Chad and the Republic of the Congo, the AU is supporting the Government in discussions with armed groups through the Africa Initiative, to reach an agreement on peace and reconciliation.
Additionally, the Commission, in collaboration with AULOs, RECs and local NGOs, undertook a needs assessment exercise to the CAR from 7 to 17 August 2016. The assessment mission provided an opportunity to reflect on the nature, extent and scope of support needed to sustain peace in the CAR. Recent key positive trends and developments were noted by the assessment mission which offer opportunities for the reconstruction of the CAR. These trends reaffirm the imperative of concerted efforts by all stakeholders to support the country in its PCRD efforts. Following the needs assessment, the Commission provided support amounting to US $137,220 for the establishment of a National Human Rights Commission in accordance with the recommendations of the August 2016 Needs Assessment.
Through this project, the National Commission on Human Rights which is in the process of being formed, will become a competent and operational institution for the promotion and protection of human rights and peace in the CAR. More specifically, the project concerns training of the members of the Commission on Peace, Human Rights and National Reconciliation in addition to and providing institutional support to the National Commission on Human Rights. The main efforts of the AU, including those of its Liaison office in the CAR, are thus focused on the consolidation of peace, security, economic recovery and reconstruction of the country.
(ii) Guinea Bissau - The AU engagements in Guinea Bissau are aimed at coordinating and harmonising efforts to resolve the political challenges facing the country in order to ensure long-term stability, development and prosperity of the country. This is more so because, the 2012 coup d’état and the tension between political leaders has created deep divisions within the political class and the society in Guinea Bissau, which put the country at continued instability. The mediation efforts promoted by the ECOWAS, and supported by the AU, UN, EU, Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP), culminated in the signing of an Agreement on 14 October 2016, in Conakry, Guinea, and a roadmap aimed at ending the political crisis facing the country. Within the framework of its QIPs/PSPs Policy, the AU provided support to the Judicial Police to ensure sustained positive law enforcement engagement with the community in Guinea Bissau. Through the UK funding mentioned above, the Commission provided support to two project totalling US $103,000. These projects include the rehabilitation of the Judiciary Police Prison in Bandim, Bissau and the procurement and installations of border/security monitoring equipment, including the purchasing of a Toyota Hilux pick-up van and three motor cycles for the International Police (INTERPOL).
(iii) Liberia – the Government of Liberia received from the Commission US $50,000 for the implementation of the Grand Bassa Community College project based on the proposal submitted by the college. The project will facilitate training, knowledge transfer and capacity building of the students in the College through the furnishing of classrooms and labs, and installation of computers and other equipment to enhance learning. With the building of capacity, the knowledge gained by the students would afford them the opportunity to get employment in various institutions in the country and contribute to their own welfare and national development. The implementation of this project would further attest to the AU’s commitment towards building and consolidating peace in Liberia as several of the PSPs implemented over the past few years have had positive impact in respective communities and society in general. It should be also highlighted that the Commission, through its office in Monrovia, won three awards during the year, including the Golden Image Award – Certificate of Achievement in the International Category on Humanity/Health in July 2016 – for its role in combating Ebola in Liberia.
(iv) Libya – Towards supporting the stabilisation of Libya, the Commission supported the development a roadmap that is centred on convening a more inclusive Libyan national reconciliation conference and agreeing on a sustainable arrangement, within the context of a modified Libya Political Agreement. In addition to the AU High Level Committee, the AU High Representative for Libya has also been consulting with Libyan parties, the neighbouring countries and the international community to facilitate on how best reconciliation can be achieved within the existing political and security constraints in the country. It is imperative that the AU, working with the regional countries, as well as the international community, continues with its facilitation role in convening the national reconciliation conference and be ready to provide assistance to all Libyan stakeholders to enable them to steer the transition to stability and the establishment of an accountable government.
(v) South Sudan - The AU High Representative to South Sudan, former President Alpha Konaré, has continued to implement his mandate of assisting the South Sudanese parties to pursue a peaceful process to finding a solution to their challenges, especially through the support of the implementation process of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, signed in August 2015, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Within Chapter 5 of the Agreement, the Commission has through its office in Juba, and with funding from the UK Government amount totalling US$ 235,772, initiated a project to support national reconciliation processes. The project aims to support efforts towards a national platform for peace and reconciliation and inclusive space for dialogue in South Sudan. It targets civil society organisations and local communities’ initiatives for healing and reconciliation. An expected outcome is reconciled local communities influencing a common agenda for national healing and reconciliation. While the project was halted by the breakdown of the security situation in July 2016, the Commission through its Liaison Office is exploring ways of continuing to support the implementation of transitional justice mechanisms and other peace consolidation instruments.
(vi) Somalia - In its critical role in ensuring peace in Somalia, the AU continued to support the transition from initial stabilisation which often has a heavy military footprint to long-term peace-building to focus on reconstruction, revitalisation of public service institutions and short- to medium-term, socio-economic and political development. Stabilisation attained in Somalia has made it possible to develop a structured approach for the transition through a division of labour between the AU, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia and the UN. Within the QIPs framework, the AU supported the following key projects consisting of providing clean water to the Out-Patient Department Community at the AMISOM Hospital within the base camp; construction of a school in Ceele Jaale; support to the Local Administration in Afgoye District of Lower Shabbelle; renovation and purchase of office equipment for Caterpillar Police station, Kismayo; rehabilitation of Warsheikh Mother Child Hospital; provision of hospital requirements for Ayuub Community Health Centre, Marka; and strengthening the oversight capability of the Interim South West Administration Parliamentary Committees.
(vii) Madagascar - the Commission assisted in strengthening the legal capacity of the administrative courts in their contribution to achieve peaceful and fair elections in Madagascar. The project whose cost is US $70,000 was conceptualised as a contribution to the policy formulation processes of the national strategy on security sector reform. The project being funded in Madagascar falls under the Justice cluster. In general, the project will contribute to strengthening the Justice Department's mission in fair distribution and the administration of justice. In particular, this project will strengthen the capacity of judges and clerks of the Administrative Courts and the Council of State to reduce the time required to register and deal with electoral disputes and to improve electoral justice by increasing the confidence of litigants.
VII. PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF PEACE AND SECURITY COUNCIL DECISIONS
16. In its Communiqué PSC/PR/COMM.(DXCIII) adopted at its 593rd meeting held on 26 April 2016, Council “requested the Commission to undertake a comprehensive review of the AU PCRD architecture”. In its Press Statement PSC/PR/BR. (DXXVIII)-Rev.1, adopted at its 528th meeting held on 30 July 2015, Council requested the Commission “to relocate the PCRD Unit from the Peace and Security Department to the Office of the Chairperson of the Commission.” In this context, it is noteworthy that during the reporting period, some key mechanisms of the PCRD architecture played catalytic roles in ensuring an effective implementation of the PCRD Policy framework. Whilst some pillars of the architecture showed positive results, others faced challenges, as they are not yet operationalised.
(i) The PSC Sub-Committee on PCRD, a key pillar of the PCRD architecture, has not been as functional as expected, thereby leaving a huge gap in terms of strategic guidance and oversight. The Committee is meant to serve as the nerve-centre to monitor the activities of all actors, provide support to affected countries, and review the state of reconstruction on the continent on a regular basis.
(ii) The PCRD Policy identified the establishment of a Ministerial Committee as one of the means to coordinate post-conflict activities and programmes aimed at improving timeliness, and to lay the foundation for social justice and sustainable peace, in line with Agenda 2063, has also not been activated, hence creating a gap in the implementation of PCRD activities. It should be noted that, it was within the same spirit, the Executive Council in July 2003, established a Ministerial Committee on PCRD for Sudan but the latter did not convene thus creating a lacuna in the AU’s engagement on PCRD issues in Sudan prior to the 2011 referendum which led to the independence of South Sudan.
(iii) Under the directive of the PSC, the Commission was to establish a Multi-Dimensional Standing Committee on PCRD, to interact on a constant basis, with international actors including the UN Peacebuilding Commission, and ensure that Africa’s vision and priorities are reflected in these programmes and policies. While this Committee is not yet established, the Commission has consulted with the UN Peacebuilding Commission, the UN Development Programme, the World Bank and the African Development Bank to determine areas of comparative advantage, and is taking the lead in determining criteria for its establishment.
17. On 18 May 2016, the Commission’s Inter-departmental Task Force on PCRD was inaugurated to ensure effective Commission-wide coordination of strategic PCRD Policy guidance and implementation. The Task Force which includes representatives of the RECs/RMs to the Commission, has carried out joint activities including the Needs Assessment to CAR, and has enhanced coordination and synergies within and the Commission and at the RECs level. The establishment of the Task Force has to a large extent responded to the rationale for the proposal to relocate the PCRD Unit from the Peace and Security Department to the Bureau of the Chairperson. It has resulted in an improved degree of coordination and coherence between the various Directorates in the Commission.
18. The issue of the location of the PCRD Centre, which is a major element of the PCRD architecture, remains unresolved. The Commission is awaiting the outcome of bilateral consultations between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Republic of Uganda. Without prejudice to the outcome of the consultations, there is a strong imperative for the Centre to be established without dividing its functions. Efforts are being undertaken to establish and operationalise the PCRD implementation mechanisms at RECs/RMs and Member State level as encouraged by the PCRD Policy.
19. The implementation of the AU PCRD Policy has grown since its adoption in 2006. However, its implementation requires a reflection on its effectiveness and impact on attaining the goals of ‘Silencing the Guns by 2020’ and ‘Agenda 2063’. Over the last ten years, there has been an increasing visibility of the AU’s peacebuilding reach through its Liaison Offices in countries emerging from conflict. As the AU reflects on ten years of implementation of its PCRD Policy, there is a need to shift from the current top-down, approach to a more people-centred paradigm with a specific focus on peace dividends, especially for women and youth. Achieving equilibrium between security, peacebuilding and long-term development remains a major challenge.
20. The Commission has developed operational guidelines for the adoption of the policy at regional and national levels; the establishment and creation of a database of African experts on PCRD; and initiated the development of an AU Standing Multi-dimensional Committee on PCRD. The Commission has also launched specific in-country peacebuilding activities to support countries such as the CAR, Comoros and Liberia within the context of the PCRD Policy framework. However, the non-establishment of key mechanisms within the PCRD architecture has negatively affected the implementation of the PCRD Policy.
21. The successful implementation of the PCRD Policy requires the active engagement of RECs/RMs, civil society, private sector and other relevant stakeholders, in order to take advantage of existing resources, mechanisms, processes and synergies. Owing to their proximity to and knowledge of countries emerging from conflict, the REC/RMs are well placed to serve as the regional focal points for PCRD.
22. The experience gained so far demonstrates that in the early recovery post-conflict context, PSPs and QIPs are effective tools for consolidating peace, reconstruction and development efforts and bringing visibility to the actions of the AU on the ground.
23. The AU’s relations with the RECs and by extension other partners requires a well-thought out strategy and resources to support the implementation of PCRD activities in a coordinated manner. The absence of financial and human resources remains a major obstacle to the implementation of the PCRD Policy - a situation that requires an urgent and sustained response.
24. Understanding PCRD as a solidarity-based African peer-to-peer knowledge exchange and political accompaniment process in order to sustain peace will assist greatly in the unity of efforts among the broad range of actors involved in peacebuilding on the continent.
25. In order to ensure the full implementation of the PCRD architecture, policies and decisions of the AU organs, the Commission makes the following recommendations:
(i) Sustainment of the functioning of the PSC Sub-Committee on PCRD in Africa. It is critical to ensure the sustained functioning of this Sub-Committee as it is meant to play a pivotal role in providing strategic guidance on the evolving PCRD norms and practices.
(ii) Effort should be made to establish the PSC Ministerial Committee on PCRD as well as the reactivation of the Multidimensional Standing Sub-Committee on PCRD so as to provide oversight and policy guidance.
(iii) As mentioned in the previous report, efforts should be intensified within the AU and among the concerned Member States to expedite the establishment of the AU PCRD Centre. When established, it would serve as a centre of excellence and provide the policy and intellectual guidance that is required for effective implementation of the PCRD Policy. It is critical to ensure that the functions of the Centre are not divided.
(iv) There is a strong imperative to strengthen the AULOs with relevant resources to tackle the persistent resource constraints that are hindering the effective implementation of their mandates. Moreover, the Commission should consolidate its expertise within the AULOs in the six pillars of the PCRD Policy; security, humanitarian/ emergency assistance, political governance and transition, socio-economic reconstruction and development, human rights, justice and reconciliation, and women and gender.
(v) A need for greater political engagement of Member States on the issues of PCRD in order to ensure that after the guns have been silenced by 2020, the continent does not witness the reoccurrence of conflicts. Enhancing intra-African cooperation through technical assistance and in-kind support is one practical way of demonstrating political commitment.
(vi) The PSC should scale up its engagements with RECs/RMs in the implementation of the PCRD Policy. To do this, the PSC should support the establishment of appropriate PCRD implementation mechanisms at RECs/RMs and Member State level with adequate human and financial resources.
(vii) The AU should ensure that a percentage of the Peace Fund is dedicated to PCRD as this would ensure predictable interventions on PCRD and peacebuilding, including adequate funding of QIPs and PSPs. This would go a long way in alleviating the acute financial challenges that continue to cripple efforts to implement the PCRD Policy.
(viii) At the national level, the Member States should be encouraged to work toward the establishment of inter-ministerial committees or other appropriate follow-up mechanisms, on PCRD.
(ix) With a view of prioritising agency and quality leadership in the AU peacebuilding and PCRD architecture, the PSC should mandate the Economic and Social Council of the AU to put forward proposals to provide space for CSOs and the private sector to engage and mobilise resources for PCRD interventions. Valuable lessons can be learned from the role of the private sector in the fight against the Ebola Virus.
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